Politics

7th -8th Saur, Two Historic Events in Afghanistan’s Political Chapter

Monday April 28, 2014
Kabul (BNA) 7th Saur 1357 which coincides 1978, a military coup was organized against the democratic government of Sardar Mohammad Dawoud Khan. On the early evening of 7th Saur, a military contingent with aerial support attacked the presidential palace and after ten hours battle, finally the democratic government of Sardar Dawoud collapsed and the power was transport to People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) under the leadership of Noor Mohammad Taraki and state of emergency was declared. President Mohammad Dawoud and his family members were killed in the attack and are considered as a tragedy in Afghanistan democratic history.
President Dawoud Khan is considered as the founding father of democracy in Afghanistan. In 1973 he organized a military takeover the kingdom of Mohammad Zahir Shah. He named his coup as a white coup and changed kingship to a democratic system. But the 7th Saur episode was totally different from the 8th Saur, because 7th Saur pushed the country toward instability and political turmoil and it provided golden opportunity to foreign countries to expand their interference inside Afghanistan. On 8th Saur, the Mujahideen factions after thirteen years of armed battle overthrew the regime of Dr. Najibullah and established their own government in the country. After fourteen years of armed movement, the Mujahideen groups toppled Najib’s government, but the victory didn’t lost more and soon ethnic clashes started among the mujahideen factions and the dream of Afghan people for peace not changed into reality and political deadlock and turmoil kept existence in Afghanistan.
In 1989, 115,000Russian troops after evacuating the country established a government in Kabul under the leadership of President Najibullah and Hizb-e-Watan Party. But the move angered the mujahideen factions and this motivated these groups to initiate armed battle against the pro-Russian government in Kabul. In the northern part of the country, the Uzbeks under the management of General Abdul Rashid Dostom and Shora-e-Nizar under the management of Ahmad Shah Massoud made a coalition and this led to toppling of regime in Kabul and in 16 Hamal 1992, President Najibullah resigned and seek asylum in the UN office in Kabul. After the resignation of Najibullah, elements related to Democratic Party of Afghanistan and the Mujahideen factions started efforts to fill the power vacuum while the Mujahideen leaders in Pakistan have not adequate preemptive measures and plan on how to tackle the political issues in the country and after the mediations of Pakistan and Saudi Arabia, the Mujahideen factions reached on an agreement on the power sharing on the month of Sawr 1992 an agreement was signed between the Mujahideen factions.
After signing the agreement, the Mujahideen groups agreed on formation of a 50 people interim council under the leadership of former President Sabghatullah Mujadadi and they decided to transfer the power within two month to Qiadi Council, the council was consisting of ten Islamic Parties under the chairmanship of Burhanuddin Rabbani as the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan and Gulboddin Hekmatyar as the prime minister. But the meantime, the Mujahideen factions hadn’t adequate information and understanding about the better and frank ties which are witnessed among other political parties in rest of the world. The issue day by day was increasing tensions and political clash between the Mujahideen factions and the turmoil finally paved way to the Taliban to get on the power and establish their extremis regime on the oppressed people of Afghanistan.
After the occupation of the Taliban on the political power, other militant groups such as Al-Qaeda terrorist network also started their activities inside Afghan soil and they tried to formulate terror plots against western interests from Afghanistan by seeking support of the Taliban. The Al-Qaeda terrorist network carried out an attack on the US and crashed several passenger jets to the twin tower of World Trade Center in New York killing thousands. The US blamed the Al-Qaeda network behind the attack and asked the Taliban to handover Osama Bin Laden the leader of Al-Qaeda network to the US. But the Taliban refused positively respond to the US and finally the United States and its allies carried out military action against the Taliban and toppled the regime in two month time. After the collapse of the Taliban regime, Afghanistan once again became the focal of international politics and international community started supporting the country.
In December 2001, the UN held a conference on Afghanistan in the German city of Bonn where the political factions from the country agreed on the formation of an interim administration under the chairmanship of President Hamid Karzai. The world community vowed their long standing support to the newly established democratic system and offered unforgettable moral and financial cooperation to Afghanistan. Following formation on interim administration, Afghanistan started getting development in various spheres including rule of law, human rights, democracy, health, education, medical services, information technology, telecommunication, transportations and other socioeconomic spheres.
Afghan nation hopes that world community their generous supports in the long term period. Because the terrorist organizations still trying to reintegrate in the country and carry out operations against international community and western countries. Afghanistan must not be put into international isolation post-2014 to avoid further threats on global peace and stability.

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